Significance to New Zealand of the Holocaust

nz curriculum
NZ Jewish survivors

Holocaust Timeline

The Holocaust



Detailed Information

30th January 1933
Hitler Chancellor of Germany
Adolf Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany
22nd March 1933
First concentration camp opened
The first concentration camp was opened at Dachau in Germany
1st April 1933
Jewish shops boycotted
Germans were told not to buy from Jewish shops or businesses
24th November 1933
'Undesirables' sent to camps
Homeless, alcoholic and unemployed people were sent to concentration camps
17th May 1934
Jewish persecution
An order was issued which prohibited Jewish people from having health insurance
15th September 1935
Nuremberg Laws
The Nuremberg Laws were introduced. These laws were designed to take away Jewish rights of citizenship and included orders that: Jews are no longer allowed to be German citizens.
Jews cannot marry non-Jews.
Jews cannot have sexual relations with non-Jews.
13th March 1938
Austrian Jews persecuted
Following Anschluss which joined Germany and Austria, Jews in Austria were persecuted and victimised.
8th July 1938
Munich synagogue destroyed
The Jewish synagogue in Munich was destroyed
5th October 1938
Jewish passports stamped with 'J'
The passports of all Austrian and German Jews had to be stamped with a large red letter 'J'
9th November 1938
A night of extreme violence. Approximately 100 Jews were murdered,
20,000 German and Austrian Jews arrested and sent to camps, Hundreds of synagogues burned, and the
Windows of Jewish shops all over Germany and Austria smashed.
12th November 1938
Jews fined
Jews were made to pay one billion marks for the damage caused by Kristallnacht.
15th November 1938
Jewish children expelled from schools
An order was issued that stated that Jewish children should not be allowed to attend non-Jewish German schools
12th October 1939
Austrian and Czech Jews deported
Jews living in Austria and Czechoslovakia were sent to Poland
23rd November 1939
Yellow Star introduced
Jews in Poland were forced to sew a yellow star onto their clothes so that they could be easily identified.
Early 1940
European Jews persecuted
Jews in German occupied countries were persecuted by the Nazis and many were sent to concentration camps.
20th May 1940
A new concentration camp, Auschwitz, opened
15th November 1940
Warsaw Ghetto
The Warsaw Ghetto was sealed off. There were around 400,000 Jewish people inside
July 1941
The Einsatzgruppen (killing squads) began rounding up and murdering Jews in Russia. 33,000 Jews are murdered in two days at Babi Yar near Kiev.
31st July 1941
'Final Solution'
Reinhard Heydrich chosen to implement ‘Final Solution’
8th December 1941
First 'Death Camp'
The first 'Death Camp' was opened at Chelmno.
January 1942
Mass-gassing of Jews began at Auschwitz-Birkenau
Summer 1942
European Jews gassed
Jews from all over occupied Europe were sent to 'Death Camps'
29th January 1943
Gypsies sent to camps
An order was issued for gypsies to be sent to concentration camps.
19th April - 16th May 1943
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
An order was issued to empty the Warsaw Ghetto and deport the inmates to Treblinka. Following the deportation of some Warsaw Jews, news leaked back to those remaining in the Ghetto of mass killings.
A group of about 750 mainly young people decided that they had nothing to lose by resisting deportation. Using weapons smuggled into the Ghetto they fired on German troops who tried to round up inmates for deportation.
They held out for nearly a month before they were taken by the Nazis and shot or sent to death camps.
Late 1943
'Death Camps' closed
With the Russians advancing from the East, many 'Death Camps' were closed and evidence destroyed.
14th May - 8th July 1944
Hungarian Jews sent to Auschwitz
440,000 Hungarian Jews were transported to Auschwitz
30th October 1944
The gas chambers at Auschwitz were used for the last time
27th January 1945
'Death Marches'
Many remaining camps were closed and evidence of their existence destroyed. Those who had survived the camps so far were taken on forced 'Death Marches'.
30th April 1945
Hitler committed suicide
Faced with impending defeat, Hitler committed suicide
7th May 1945
German surrender
Germany surrendered and the war in Europe was over
20th November 1945
Nuremberg war trial began
Surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial at Nuremberg