Placing Artifacts in Time

This interactive focuses on the concept of Chronological Thinking. Using the example of Pocahontas, teachers explore how historical representations change over time, and often reflect the period in which the representation was created.

Analyzing Artifacts

While teachers may be familiar with analyzing historical documents students need instruction and practice in the process of analyzing historical artifacts.

Reading Maps

Cartographic literacy is an important skill; a basic foundation in reading and analyzing maps as historic artifacts.

Evaluating Evidence

The process of evaluating primary sources and determining their support of a given thesis. Using the Civil War as the example, teachers rank the relevancy of sources in relation to four common beliefs as to the cause of the war.

Curating an Exhibit

Curate their own museum exhibit, centered on the theme of "Conflicts in American History." Teachers select artifacts, letters. paintings, and other items that reflect this theme. Then, they are able to write their own descriptions of the items that tie them to the larger theme. Finally, teachers are able to view and print their final compiled exhibit.

Balancing Sources

Examine historical events, consider how they have been portrayed in different sources, and create a narrative that considers the various perspectives represented. Teachers examine a variety of primary sources from major eras of American History, and choose several sources to represent different perspectives of the era.

Historical Terms - What is an anachronism?

Anachronisms are things that are placed in the wrong time period.

They crop up in pictures, or in writing, and are often the result of not researching a topic well.

For example:

A writer could refer to William the Conqueror phoning London. As the telephone was not invented until 1867, this would be an anachronism.


An artist might paint a picture showing people cooking their dinner on an electric cooker in 1450. As electricity was not invented until the late nineteenth century, this would be an anachronism.

Sometimes anachronisms happen by mistake.

For example:

A film director making a film about the Victorians might, by accident, film an aeroplane in the sky. As aeroplanes were not invented until the twentieth century, this would be an anachronism.


A sound recordist might, by accident, record the sound of a mobile phone ringing. As mobile phones were not invented until the late twentieth century, this would be an anachronism.

Historical Terms - Historical Sources Explained

An historical source is something that tells us about History. It may be a document, a picture, a sound recording, a book, a cinema film, a television programme or an object.
There are two main types of historical source:
Primary Sources and Secondary Sources
A Primary source is something that originates from the past.
A Secondary source is something that has been made recently about the past.
For Example:
A Roman coin that was made by the Romans is a Primary Source, but a drawing of a Roman coin made in 2003 would be a Secondary Source.
A Book written about the Tudors in 1525 would be a Primary Source, but a book written about the Tudors in 1995 would be a Secondary Source.

For example:

Historical Terms - Questions to ask of a source

A historian will ask a variety of questions in order to find out historical information about a source. The same questions can be asked of either a Primary Source or a Secondary Source. There are six key questions to ask:


Listed below are a selection of questions that might be asked of a source by a historian. Please note that not every question will be used for every source.


For Example:

WHO made it? WHO used it? WHO is in the picture? WHOSE opinion does it show?

Roman Coins
Roman Coins

Who made it? The Romans in AD 45

Who used it? The Romans

Who is in the picture? The head on the coins show who was emperor.

Roman coins made by the Romans in AD 45

Historical Terms - Chronology

The word 'chronology' is made from two Greek words - 'chrono' meaning time and 'logos' meaning discourse or reasoning (working out).

The word 'chronology' therefore means the working out of time.

But how do we work out time?


Since ancient times man has used a variety of devices to tell the time; Time that is ordered into seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks and years.

Working out time means giving that time some order.

For Example:

When we say...

yesterday, last Monday, last month, last year, three years ago, one hundred years ago or one thousand years ago we are giving time some order. We are making a



Putting time into chronological order

Chronology - Timelines

A timeline is one way of showing a chronology (putting time in order). It can cover a short period of time or hundreds of years.
Example 1:

Example 2:
A detailed Timeline showing the Norman and Plantagenet Monarchs and some of the main events of their reigns.
Norman and Plantagenet Timeline
Norman and Plantagenet Timeline

Norman and Plantagenet Timeline
Norman and Plantagenet Timeline

Timelines are useful in History because they give us an overview of a period of time and can help us to see how events are related. For example, using the timeline above, we can see that the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 was part of the Hundred Years War between France and England.

Examples of Timelines:

Tudor and Stuart Timeline

The Tudor and Stuart Monarchs and some of the main events of their reigns

tudor and stuart timeline
tudor and stuart timeline

World War One Timeline

Detailed Information
28 June 1914
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
The Balkan states of Bosnia and Herzegovina, had been annexed from Turkey and taken into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This was strongly resented by many Serbs and Croats and a nationalist group, The Black Hand, was formed.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, had decided to inspect Austro-Hungarian troops in Bosnia. The date chosen for the inspection was a national day in Bosnia. The Black Hand supplied a group of students with weapons for an assassination attempt to mark the occasion.
A Serbian nationalist student, Gavrilo Princip, assassinated the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, when their open car stopped at a corner on its way out of the town.
28 July 1914
Austria declared war on Serbia
The Austrian government blamed the Serbian government for the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife and declared war on Serbia.
Although Russia was allied with Serbia, Germany did not believe that she would mobilise and offered to support Austria if necessary.
However, Russia did mobilise and, through their alliance with France, called on the French to mobilise.
1 Aug 1914
Germany declared war on Russia
Germany declared war on Russia.
3 Aug 1914
Germany declared war on France
Germany declared war on France. German troops poured into Belgium as directed under the Schleiffen Plan, drawn up in 1905. The British foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, sent an ultimatum to Germany demanding their withdrawal from the neutral Belgium.
4 Aug 1914
British declaration of war
Germany did not withdraw from Belgium and Britain declared war on Germany.
Aug 1914
Battle of Tannenberg
The Russian army marched into Prussia. However, because of the differences in railway gauge between Russia and Prussia it was difficult for the Russians to get supplies through to their men. The Germans, on the other hand, used their railway system to surround the Russian Second army at Tannenberg before it's commander could realise what was happening. The ensuing battle was a heavy defeat for the Russians with thousands of men killed and 125,000 taken prisoner. Although the Germans won the battle, 13,000 men were killed.
13 Aug 1914
Japan declared war on Germany
Japan declared war on Germany through her alliance with Great Britain, signed in 1902
Sept 1914
Battle of Masurian Lakes
Having defeated the Russian Second army, the Germans turned their attention to the Russian First army at Masurian Lakes. Although the Germans were unable to defeat the army completely, over 100,000 Russians were taken prisoner.
29 Oct 1914
Turkey entered the war on the side of the central powers and gave help to a German naval bombardment of Russia.
2 Nov 1914
Russia declared war on Turkey
Because of the help given by Turkey to the German attack of Russia, Russia declared war on Turkey.
5 Nov 1914
Britain and France declared war on Turkey
Britain and France, Russia's allies, declared war on Turkey, because of the help given to the German attack on Russia.
late 1914
Early stages of the war
The German advance through Belgium to France did not go as smoothly as the Germans had hoped. The Belgians put up a good fight destroying railway lines to slow the transport of German supplies.
Despite a French counter-attack that saw the deaths of many Frenchmen on the battlefields at Ardennes, the Germans continued to march into France. They were eventually halted by the allies at the river Marne.?
British troops had advanced from the northern coast of France to the Belgian town of Mons. Although they initially held off the Germans, they were soon forced to retreat.
The British lost a huge number of men at the first battle of Ypres.
By Christmas, all hopes that the war would be over had gone and the holiday saw men of both sides digging themselves into the trenches of the Western Front.
Dec 1914
The first Zeppelins appeared over the English coast.
7 May 1915
Lusitania sunk
There outraged protests from the United States at the German U-boat campaign, when the Lusitania, which had many American passengers aboard, was sank. The Germans moderated their U-boat campaign.
23 May 1915
Italy entered the war on the side of the Allies.
2 Apr 1915
Second Battle of Ypres
Poison gas was used for the first time during this battle. The gas, fired by the Germans claimed many British casualties.
Feb 1915
Zeppelin bombing
Zeppelin airships dropped bombs on Yarmouth.
Feb 1915
The Russians appealed for help from Britain and France to beat off an attack by the Turkish. The British navy responded by attacking Turkish forts in the Dardenelles.
Apr - Aug 1915
Dardenelles/ Gallipoli
Despite the loss of several ships to mines, the British successfully landed a number of marines in the Gallipoli region of the Dardenelles. Unfortunately the success was not followed up and the mission was a failure.
after Feb 1915
Winston Churchill resigns
Winston Churchill, critical of the Dardenelles campaign, resigned his post as First Lord of the Admiralty. He rejoined the army as a battalion commander.
April 1915
The use of airships by the Germans increased. Zeppelins began attacking London. They were also used for naval reconnaissance, to attack London and smaller balloons were used for reconnaissance along the Western Front. They were only stopped when the introduction of aeroplanes shot them down.
early 1916
Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill served in Belgium as lieutenant colonel of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.
April 1916
Romania enter the war
Romania joined the war on the side of the Allies. But within a few months was occupied by Germans and Austrians.
31 May 1916
Battle of Jutland
This was the only truly large-scale naval battle of the war. German forces, confined to port by a British naval blockade, came out in the hope of splitting the British fleet and destroying it ship by ship. However, the British admiral, Beatty, aware that the German tactics were the same as those used by Nelson at Trafalgar, sent a smaller force to lure the German's into the range of Admiral Jellicoe's main fleet. Although Beatty's idea worked, the exchange of fire was brief and the German's withdrew.
1 June 1916
Battle of Jutland
The British and German naval forces met again but the battle was inconclusive. The German ships did a great deal of damage to British ships before once again withdrawing and the British Admiral Jellicoe decided not to give chase.?
Although British losses were heavier than the German, the battle had alarmed both the Kaiser and the German Admiral Scheer and they decided to keep their fleet consigned to harbour for the remainder of the war.
28 Nov 1916
First Aeroplane raid
The first German air raid on London took place. The Germans hoped that by making raids on London and the South East, the British Air Force would be forced into protecting the home front rather than attacking the German air force.
Dec 1916
Lloyd George Prime Minister
Lloyd George became Prime Minister of the war time coalition. His war cabinet, unlike that of his predecessor, met every day. However, there was considerable disagreement among the members of the Cabinet, especially between Lloyd George and his war secretary, Sir Douglas Haig. Lloyd George suspected Haig of squandering life needlessly and was suspicious of his demands for more men and freedom of action in the field.
21 Feb - Nov 1916
Battle of Verdun
The Germans mounted an attack on the French at Verdun designed to 'bleed the French dry'. Although the fighting continued for nine months, the battle was inconclusive. Casualties were enormous on both sides with the Germans losing 430,000 men and the French 540,000.
1 July - Nov 1916
Battle of the Somme
The battle was preceded by a week long artillery bombardment of the German line which was supposed to destroy the barbed wire defences placed along the German line but only actually succeeded in making no mans land a mess of mud and craters. The five month long battle saw the deaths of 420,000 British soldiers (60,000 on the first day), 200,000 French soldiers and 500,000 German soldiers all for a total land gain of just 25 miles.
New war commander
Lloyd George, who had never trusted his war minister's ability to direct the war, persuaded the Cabinet to appoint the French General Nivelle as supreme war commander over Haig's head. Haig was assured that the appointment was for one operation only and that if he felt the British army was being misused by the Frenchman he could appeal to the British government.
July - Nov 1917
W.front Passchendale
The operation commanded by the French General, Nivelle, went wrong and caused the loss of many French soldiers. Haig protested to the British government and advocated trying his own scheme for a breakthrough. At the resulting battle of Passchendale, Haig broke his promise to call off the battle if the first stage failed because he did not want to lose face with the government.
Churchill Minister of Munitions
Following the heavy defeat at Passchendale, Lloyd George decided that he wanted Churchill in the Cabinet. Churchill was duly appointed Minister of Munitions.
Reinforcements sent to Italy
The Italians had lost many men trying to hold the line between Italy and the Central Powers. British and French reinforcements were sent to hold the line.
early 1917
German U-boat campaign
In Germany, orders were given to step up the U-boat campaign. All allied or neutral ships were to be sunk on sight and in one month almost a million tons of shipping was sunk. Neutral countries became reluctant to ship goods to Britain and Lloyd George ordered all ships carrying provisions to Britain to be given a convoy.
6 April 1917
USA declares war on Germany
The United States of America declared war on Germany in response to the sinking, by German U boats, of US ships.?
Nov 1917
W. Front Cambrai
The British took a large force of tanks across the barbed wire and machine gun posts at Cambrai.
Dec 1917
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Following the successful revolution by the Bolsheviks, the Russians signed an Armistice with Germany at Brest-Litovsk. The terms of the treaty were harsh: Russia had to surrender Poland, the Ukraine and other regions. They had to stop all Socialist propaganda directed at Germany and pay 300 million roubles for the repatriation of Russian prisoners.
April 1918
RAF formed
The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service were merged to form the Royal Air Force.
8 - 11 Aug 1918
Battle of Amiens
The British general, Haig, ordered the attack of the German sector at Amiens. At the same time the news came through that the allies had broken through from Salonika and forced Bulgaria to sue for peace.
mid Oct 1918
Allies recover France and Belgium
The allies had taken almost all of German-occupied France and part of Belgium.
30 Oct 1918
Armistice with Turkey
The allies had successfully pushed the Turkish army back and the Turks were forced to ask for an armistice. The terms of the armistice treaty allowed the allies access to the Dardenelles.
early Nov 1918
Hindenberg line collapsed
By the beginning of November the allies had pushed the Germans back beyond the Hindenberg line.
9 Nov 1918
Kaiser abdicated
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated.
11 Nov 1918
Armistice signed
At 11 am, in the French town of Redonthes, the Armistice was signed bringing the war to an end.

Sample lesson - About Bias

Online Lesson

The Mystery of Anastasia

Suggested Lesson Plan

Mystery of Anastasia Online Lesson
Actual times taken for this activity will vary depending upon each pupil's ability. On each page there is a link back to the explanation page if pupil's need further explanation. The times given in this lesson plan are the times taken for a pupil of average ability to complete each task.
Learning Outcomes
To develop an understanding of who Anastasia was.
To have a basic knowledge of the members of the Romanoff family and their lives.
To have some knowledge of what happened to the Russian royal family after the revolution of 1917.
To be familiar with the Anna Anderson Case.
To be able to recognise bias and see how it can be used to persuade people to one point of view.
To formulate an opinion based on opposing biased statements.
To write an essay
Skills Developed
Chronology and historical terms; Knowledge and Understanding; Interpretation of sources, Recognition of bias, Communication and Understanding.

6 minutes
Introduce topic ( this may have been done in the classroom)
Recap Health and Safety guidelines for IT room.
Pupils to 'log on' and find beginning of lesson -
or click on 'Resources', 'Online Lessons' click on 'Anastasia Bias'.
Remind pupils to read instructions carefully and to ask for help if they do not understand.
When ready, click on 'Begin Lesson'.
3 minutess
Pupils to carefully read through the Facts about Anastasia
3 minutes
Pupils to complete the paragraph by choosing the correct missing words from the drop down menu.
3 minutes
Pupils read through an explanation of who Anna Anderson was.

The next two pages offer biased evidence.
The evidence on the first page suggests that Anderson was Anastasia, while the evidence on the second page suggests that she was an imposter.
Clicking on the Word icon at the bottom of the page will open a comparative table in a separate window for pupils to complete. They may need some additional explanation about how to minimise the Word table using the horizontal bar at the top right of the screen while they are reading the evidence.
4 minutes
Pupils read through the first page of evidence and fill in their table.
NB - Instructions are not given as to whether pupils should cut and paste the information or should re-write in their own words. If you wish your pupils to specifically use one method or the other you will have to instruct them on this.
4 minutes
Pupils read through the second page of evidence and fill in their table.
3 minutes
The next page shows a completed table with information that has been cut and pasted from the two sets of information.
The information in the first column, taken from Anna Anderson 1, is coloured blue, that in the second column, taken from Anna Anderson 2, is coloured red.
Pupils are told that the reason for this is that the evidence is biased.
They can then vote for Anna Anderson as Anastasia or an imposter. After viewing the results they are returned to the lesson by clicking the button above the graph.
3 minutes
Pupils are given details of the court cases which debated the Anna Anderson case.
26 minutes
Pupils write an essay using either the Word frame provided or a blank Word document.
5 minutes
Pupils to log off and leave the room clean and tidy

Henry VIII and the Break with Rome Timeline

Detailed Information
Henry marries Catherine of Aragon
Henry came to the throne following the death of his father, Henry VII. He married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon.
Martin Luther 95 thesis
Luther made a protest against the Catholic practice of Indulgences. Luther gained support for his ideas and Europe became split between Luther's supporters (Protestants) and the Catholics.
Oct 1521
Fidei Defensor
A book, 'Septum Sacramentorum', written by Henry VIII which spoke in defence of the Catholic religion was presented to the Pope. The Pope gave Henry the title, Fidei Defensor [Defender of the Faith] which was hereditary and is still used by the monarchy today.
Nov 1522
Diet of Nuremburg
This Diet was called to discuss the situation regarding Luther. The Pope wanted Luther be banned from the Holy Roman Empire but the diet would not agree for fear of civil war. They did agree to ban the publication of Lutheran books and sermons.
Henry first doubts validity of marriage
Henry stopped having sexual relations with Catherine. He no longer found his wife desirable and was beginning to have serious doubts regarding the validity of his marriage. He believed that God was punishing him for marrying his brother's wife by not giving him a son.
Concern about succession
Henry was very concerned about who should succeed him to the throne. The heir to the throne was his daughter, Mary. However, there had not been a Queen of England since Matilda in 1136 and there had been civil war as a result.
Early 1525
Anne Boleyn
Henry became infatuated with Anne Boleyn.
Feb 1526
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII, aged 35 years, asked Anne Boleyn, aged 19 years, to become his mistress. He was amazed when she refused, saying that she would only surrender her virginity to the man she married.
Spring 1527
Henry contemplates divorce
Henry was persuaded by a passage in Leviticus that the reason why he did not have a son was because he had married his brother's wife. He decided that he had to divorce Catherine.
May 1527
Ecclesiastical Court
An ecclesiastical court met several times to discuss the validity of Henry's marriage. However, they were unable to reach any clear conclusion and referred the case to Rome.
22 June 1527
Henry told Catherine that they must separate because they had been living in sin. He asked her to co-operate and to choose a house to retire to until the matter was resolved. Catherine was stunned and upset and made it quite plain that she would resist any divorce.
Jan 1528
Thomas Wolsey wrote to the Pope asking for the papal legate, Lorenzo Campeggio, be sent to England to pass judgement on the king's marriage.
Aug 1528
Pressure was put on Catherine to retire to a convent. This would leave the King free to remarry.
29 Sept 1528
Campeggio arrives in England
Cardinal Campeggio arrived at Dover. He had been told by the Pope to avoid making a decision for as long as possible.
22 Oct 1528
Henry and Campeggio
Campeggio met Henry. He suggested that Henry attempt a reconciliation, but when Henry made it clear that he would settle for nothing less than an annulment, Campeggio agreed to try to persuade Catherine to enter a convent which would easily allow the marriage to be dissolved.
24 Oct 1528
Campeggio and Catherine
Campeggio met Catherine. He advised her to enter a convent and retire gracefully. Catherine refused and made it plain that she intended to live and die a married woman. Catherine had the full support of the English people.
Nov 1528
Catherine was separated from Mary. She was told that while she would not obey the King's wishes she would not be allowed to see her daughter.
Jan 1529
Catherine appeals to Rome
Catherine lodged an appeal to Rome against the authority of the Legatine Court and the ability of Wolsey and Campeggio to try the case.
April 1529
Catherine chooses her representatives
Catherine chose Archbishop Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Ely and St Asaph and her main supporter, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester to represent her during the forthcoming trial.
31 May - 16 July 1529
Legatine Court
Wolsey and Campeggio opened court at Blackfriars. Henry and Catherine appeared before the court on 18th June. Catherine challenged that authority of the Court and the qualification of the two legates to hear the cast. She stated her wish for the case to be heard in Rome, but this was denied. On 21st June Henry told the court of his fears that his lack of a male heir was due to his marrying his brother's wife. Catherine, in reply made a very moving speech asserting the validity of her present marriage. she stated that she did not recognise the authority of their court and wanted the case referred to Rome. When permission was refused she left the court. Catherine did not attend the court hearing again. On 16th July the Pope decided that the divorce case should not be heard in England but should be heard in Rome.
Aug 1529
Henry summoned to Rome
Henry received a summons from Rome to appear before the papal curia. He was furious. His anger with Rome was growing as was the awareness that the Pope may never grant him a divorce. He realised that he needed to find another solution.
Autumn 1529
Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer was summoned to appear before the King. He told Henry that it was his opinion that the marriage should be tried by the Doctors of Divinity in the Universities for it was them that studied the Bible and were therefore better qualified to discuss its meaning. If the marriage were found to be invalid then all that would be necessary would be for the Archbishop of Canterbury to pronounce the King a free man. Henry was impressed and ordered Cranmer to set aside all other work and devote all his time to the divorce. Henry was also impressed with the idea that he, not the Pope, should be Head of the Church in England.
Nov 1529
Church Reform
Acts were passed by Parliament to remedy abuses by the church. The fees to be charged for probate and mortuary were limited. the procedures for dealing with murderers and felons who sought sanctuary were made more severe. Lands leased by spiritual men were to be regulated. The number of offices to be held by any one man was reduced to four. the measures were not well received by the clergy.
Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Cromwell entered the King's service. He decided that he would try to use a papal bull obtained by Wolsey in 1518 that allowed some reform of the monasteries. It was Cromwell's aim to close the smaller monasteries and redirect their wealth to the Crown. There were in excess of 800 religious houses in England with 10,000 monks, nuns and friars.
Feb - April 1530
Universities decide on King's marriage
The King's advisors began consulting the universities as to their opinions on the King's marriage. At Cambridge University there was quite strong opposition to the divorce so they had to be careful which Doctors were picked to make the decision. The University declared that it was against divine law for a man to marry his brother's widow.

At Oxford university opposition to the divorce was stronger and more care was needed in the selection of Doctors to make the decision. It was decided by 27 votes to 22 in Henry's favour.
June 1530
A massive campaign was launched to declare that the relevant passage in Leviticus was subject to Canon law and libraries across Europe were searched for information that would help prove the King's case. All those scholars deciding that Henry had a good case were sent a sum of money.
Nov 1530
Thomas Wolsey
Wolsey was arrested. He was to be sent to the tower of London. However, he died on the journey to London.
Dec 1530
Henry ordered to Rome
Henry received a citation ordering him to appear in Rome to state his case. His anger with Rome was increasing.
5 Jan 1531
Pope orders Henry to separate
The Pope, Clement VII, issued a brief that ordered Henry to separate from Anne. He also informed Henry that he was not free to re-marry and that if he did so without the permission of Rome then any children of the liaison would be considered illegitimate.
11 Feb 1531
Henry Head of Church
Henry stood up in parliament and demanded that all members of the Church in England recognise him as Supreme Head and Sole Protector of the Church in England. Although there was much resistance, an Act was passed confirming the King's status as Supreme Head of the Church of England. The King's new title was proclaimed to the people.
late Oct 1531
Henry and Anne Boleyn
Henry was living openly with Anne Boleyn at Greenwich.
Jan 1532
The Pope postponed any hearing of the king of England's divorce for a further year.
21 March 1532
Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates
This Bill limited payments to Rome to 5% of the net revenue of any church. Henry also went into the House of Commons, an unprecedented move, and asked that all those who supported the bill sit on one side of the House and those who opposed it sit on the other.
15 May 1532
Submission of the Clergy
This took the form of a short document that was to be signed by all Bishops. The document made three concessions.

1. The clergy would make no new laws without the consent of the monarch.

2. The clergy would allow all existing laws to be reviewed by a commission of clergy and laymen appointed by the King.

3. Convocation would not meet without first obtaining royal permission.
16 May 1532
Thomas More - resignation
The signing of the Submission of the clergy led to Thomas More, who was deeply opposed to the break with Rome, resigning his position as Chancellor on the grounds of ill health.
early Jan 1533
Anne Boleyn - Pregnant
Anne Boleyn told Henry that she was pregnant. Henry now knew he had to marry Anne as soon as possible to ensure the child's legitimacy. He decided that the marriage should take place as soon as possible, but should be kept secret until an act could be passed abolishing all appeals to Rome.
25 Jan 1533
Henry/Anne Boleyn - marriage
Shortly before dawn, in the presence of four or five witnesses, sworn to secrecy, Henry and Anne were married in the King's private chapel at Whitehall.
7 April 1533
Act in Restraint of Appeals
The passing of this act forbade all appeals to foreign tribunals in all spiritual, revenue and testamentary cases. Spiritual and secular jurisdiction was to be the ultimate responsibility of the King and the Pope's right of intervention was abolished.
12 April 1533
Thomas Cranmer - divorce
Thomas Cranmer was formally authorised to pass judgement on the King's marriage to Catherine. I
May 1533
Act in Restraint of Annates
This Act, first introduced in 1532, was now brought into force.
13 May 1533
Thomas Cranmer - divorce
Thomas Cranmer declared Henry's marriage null and void on the grounds that it was contrary to divine law.
28 May 1533
Thomas Cranmer - Henry/Anne
In a hearing at Lambeth Palace, Cranmer proclaimed that Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn was legal.
1 June 1533
Coronation - Queen Consort
Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen Consort at Westminster Abbey.
7 Sept 1533
Birth of Elizabeth I
A daughter, Elizabeth, was born to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Henry was obviously disappointed that the baby was not a boy and blamed both God and Anne for denying him the heir he so desired.
mid Sept 1533
Mary Tudor
Mary was told that she would no longer be referred to as Princess. Her household was to be disbanded and her servants were told to remove her badge from their liveries.
Dec 1533
An order was issued that stated that the Pope had no more authority in England than any other bishop. From now on he would be referred to as the Bishop of Rome. The break with Rome had happened so gradually that there was very little opposition to the move.
Dec 1533
Anne Boleyn
Anne announced that she was pregnant for the second time.
early 1534
The Act in Absolute Restraint of Appeals
This act put into effect the terms of the Act of 1532 and transferred all payments from the pope to the King. Henry was declared to be, next to Christ, the only Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England. It also laid down that all future abbots and bishops were to be chosen for election by the King.
early 1534
Act Against Peter's Pence
An Act was passed that forbade the payment of Peter's Pence. The act also prohibited the selling of Papal dispensations in England. A clause was inconspicuously added giving the King the right to visit and reform all religious houses.
23 March 1534
Act of Succession
This Act was introduced to exclude Mary from the succession and settle it instead on the children born from his marriage to Anne.
after 23 March 1534
Oath of Succession
The King's councillors were to take the oath first, after which they would supervise their inferior officers. the sheriffs would ensure that the Justices of the Peace took the oath and they in turn would ensure that all house-holders took the oath. Refusal to take the oath would be tantamount to treason.
Spring 1534
Act concerning Archbishop of Canterbury
An Act was passed that put the Archbishop of Canterbury's power of dispensation under the control of the King. The Archbishop was also to pay 2/3 of any profits made to the King. The Act also gave the King the power to visit the monasteries.
Spring 1534
Act of Parliament - Church
An Act was passed that granted 1/10 of all clerical income to the Crown.
Spring/ Summer 1534
Henry wanted to be sure that his subjects knew that Papal supremacy had been replaced by royal supremacy. He ordered all parish priests to erase all references to the Pope from the prayer books. All preachers were told that their parishioners must be left in no doubt that the King, and only the King, was Head of the Church.
13 April 1534
Act of Succession John Fisher, Thomas More
John Fisher and Thomas More refused to take the Oath of Succession.
1 May 1534
Act of Succession
The terms of the Act of Succession were proclaimed across the land. The people were warned that if they said or wrote anything against the King's present marriage or his lawful heirs, they would be guilty of treason, punishable by death
June/July 1534
Anne Boleyn - Stillbirth
Anne was delivered of a stillborn child. Henry who did not want to lose face a second time ordered the details to be kept secret.
Nov 1534
Act of Supremacy
This act effectively declared England as a sovereign state with the King as Head of both the country and the Church. The act stated that the king was to become Supreme Head of the Church of England and would have the power to visit, redress, reform, correct or amend all errors, heresies and enormities which would previously have been dealt with by another spiritual authority. The King could define the faith in parliament. The King also had the power to appoint men of his choosing to the most important ecclesiastical posts. The passing of this act gave Henry more power than ever for within his own realm he was superior to the Pope and all taxes formerly paid to Rome would now be paid to the King.
Nov 1534
Treason Act
This Act made it a treasonable offence to deny any of the King's titles. It stated that malicious wish, will or desire to deprive the King or Queen of title or name of their royal estates was to be deemed treason. Slanderous publication of writing or words uttered describing the King as heretic, schismatic, tyrant, infidel or usurper would also be deemed treason. The main reason for this act was to make it a treasonable offence to deny that the King was Supreme Head of the Church. It also enabled Parliament to enforce the Act of Succession under penalty of death.
Jan 1535
It was again suggested that since England had broken with the Pope and all the monasteries owed allegiance to the Pope, that they could be closed and their wealth seized by the Crown.
mid March 1535
Anne Boleyn - pregnant
Anne Boleyn discovered that she was pregnant.
22 June 1535
John fisher
John Fisher, aged 76 years, was beheaded on Tower hill at 10 am.
late June 1535
Anne Boleyn - Stillbirth
Anne Boleyn was prematurely delivered of a stillborn child.
Nov 1535
Jane Seymour
Jane Seymour had succeeded in attracting Henry and was being openly courted by him.
late Nov 1535
Anne Boleyn - pregnant
Anne Boleyn was restored to favour when she found she was again pregnant. However, she knew that everything depended on the outcome of this pregnancy.
Act Against the Pope's Authority
This Act removed the last traces of Papal power in England, including the Pope's right to decide disputed points of Scripture. the passing of this Act, together with the Act in Restraint of Appeals (1533) and the Act of Supremacy (1534) made it unacceptable for monastic communities, who owed allegiance to parent institutions outside England, to remain.
7 Jan 1536
Catherine of Aragon - Death
Catherine of Aragon died at 2 p.m. at Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire, probably of cancer.
29 Jan 1536
Anne Boleyn - Stillbirth
Anne Boleyn, four months into her pregnancy, was delivered of a stillborn son at Greenwich Palace. She blamed the miscarriage on her worry about Henry's affair with Jane Seymour. Anne was worried that Henry would now divorce her.
11 March 1536
A bill was presented to Parliament which would, when passed, authorise the closure of all monasteries with a revenue of less than £200 per year. About 376 monasteries fell into this category.
24 April 1536
Anne Boleyn
Henry signed a commission that authorised commissioners to enquire into any kind of treason committed by his wife.
2 May 1536
Anne Boleyn
Anne received a summons to appear before the Privy Council. She was told that two men, Norris and Smeaton had admitted adultery with her and that she was now charged with that offence. She was taken down river to the Tower where she arrived by Traitor's Gate.
10 May 1536
Anne Boleyn - charged
Anne Boleyn was charged with having committed adultery with some half dozen men including her brother George. She was charged with plotting her husband's murder and with promising to marry one of her lovers when the King was dead.
15 May 1536
Anne Boleyn - trial
Anne Boleyn was tried on a charge of committing adultery with a number of men. Although Anne protested her innocence brilliantly, she was found guilty of high treason and sentenced to die either by beheading or burning, whichever was the King's choice. Anne received the sentence calmly and said that she was prepared to die but was sorry that innocent men had to die with her. Anne was escorted back to the Tower.
17 May 1536

Anne Boleyn was taken to watch the executions of her brother, George Boleyn, and the other men accused of committing adultery with her.
19 may 1536
Anne Boleyn - execution
At 9 am Anne Boleyn emerged from the Tower to Tower Green. Her head was severed with one stroke of the sword. As her head fell guns were fired to signal her end. She was buried in the Royal Chapel of St Peter Vincula within the Tower of London.
30 May 1536
Henry/Jane Seymour
Henry married Jane Seymour at Whitehall Palace, London.
8 June 1536
Act of Suppression
Cromwell persuaded Parliament to pass this Act which provided for the closure of all monasteries worth less than £200 per annum and for their properties to be placed at the King's disposal.
July 1536
Act of Succession
This Act cancelled the two previous acts of Succession. It registered the invalidity of Henry's first two marriages and gave Elizabeth the same status as Mary. Neither daughter was to be called princess but the King's daughter, lady Mary and the King's daughter, Lady Elizabeth. This act gave rights of succession to children of Henry's marriage to Jane Seymour.
July 1536
Church - The Ten Articles
These were a series of injunctions introduced by Cromwell to improve the conduct of the clergy and the worship of the people. Sermons were to be preached at stated periods against the Rome. Relics were not to be exhibited for gain. A good home life was deemed preferable to pilgrimage. Children were to learn the Lord's Prayer, The Holy Creed and The Ten Commandments in English among other things.
Bishop's Book/Institution of Christian man
The Bishop's book appeared. Often referred to as 'The Institution of a Christian Man', it laid down a stand on Christian Orthodoxy. The book makes note that the fifth commandment, Honour thy mother and thy father, meant that a subject must love the King as the father of his subjects and that all Christians must love the King more than they loved their natural father.
April 1539
Great Bible Introduced
The Great Bible was the first English Bible to be authorised by the King to be used in Churches in England. Cromwell directed all churches to provide a copy of this Bible in a place where it could be read by all.
June 1539
The Six Articles
This doctrine instituted by Henry set the out the faith of the new Anglican church. The church retained most practices and principles of the Catholic church. The only real difference was that the King not the Pope was now head of the Church.