Your Year 12 Course Outline

91232 Perspectives

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Lesson One, 10th February, 2014

Learning Intention:
students will have knowledge of their course and achievement standards
students will have knowledge of their classmates' opinions
students will have knowledge of what Europe was like just before WW1

Success Criteria:
Students will have shared their opinions in a group
students will have moved into different groups and listened to their classmates while they talked
students will be able to describe what the culture appeared to be like in Europe prior to WW1. 34 minutes in

Lesson: world cafe students learn to listen respectfully
1. what is the difference between belief and opinion?
2. what is religion?
3. what do we believe happens to us when we die?
4. How do our ancestors affect our lives?
5. Why does war break out?

students created visual representation of their understanding of the historical forces/ concepts;
a) nationalism
b) militarism

Homework: students to find definitions from the web or a dictionary of the historical forces/concepts
a) nationalism
b) militarism

Lesson 2. Day 4. 13 February, 2014
Homework checkin: Is your homework here or are you square?

-students will reinforce their understanding of the nature and power of the historical forces: Nationalism and Militarism.
-students will have more knowledge of the character of European nations and people just before WW1 in order to understand why these nations viewed declaring war on each other as honourable.

Do Now: 1) write the following quote from the German leader, the Kaiser, when he came to the throne of Germany. He was speaking about his relationship with his army and navy.

"We belong to each other. I am the army. We were born for each other. We are indisolubly cleaved (stuck together forever). I promise ever to bear in mind that from the world above the eyes of my forefathers (ancestors) look down on me and I shall one day have to stand accountable to them for the glory and honour of the army."

2) What kind of historical force/concept is the Kaiser demonstrating evidence of?

3) Write the following quote about the Prussian influence seeping through the whole nation.

"It was above all a military influence. Well described by one of its advocates (supporters) von Hindenburg - the head of the Prussian and now the German army . "The army strengthened that organising impulse which we found everywhere in the Fatherland. The conviction that the subordination (submission) of the individual for the good of the community was not only a necessity but a positive blessing had gripped the mind of the German army - and through it the German nation."

4) What kind of historical force/concept is von Hindenburg demonstrating evidence of?

5) Draw a picture in your books of two stick figures, one called Nationalism and the other called Militarism hugging each other to show these two important historical forces combining to shape German society. You will notice later on that this wacko Nationalism and Militarism combination was a feature of all the leading nations and empires just prior to WW1. With equally wacko consequences.

6) With Prussia at its core, Germany was now the most powerful military organism in the world. What does the description "organism" make your mind compare Germany to?


phase 2:
Access information/knowledge - we'll continue viewing the film about the build up to war in 1914

phase 3:
embedding information - through questions

New historical forces:
1. Empire building by nations which is called Imperialism. Think of a country taking over the territory and peoples of different lands across the globe.
2. The Alliance System or the system of alliances between countries. Think of kids at school saying "if something happens to you I'll come and protect you". Ganging up against each other. Unfortunately countries who had made promises to come to eachother's aid sometimes had to cross neutral territory to invade a country!

Homework: write down information about the historical force Imperialism. Find out what happened to the Russian royal family.

Lesson 3 Monday 17th February, Day 6: A 100 year old Terrorist attack - nationalism meets imperialism
Do Now: from memory, without looking at your notes, list the historical forces at play in European politics prior to WW1.

Big Question for the Lesson: Why did European nations flop into a war with each other?

Learning Intention: students will understand the role of nationalism and its call for nationhood in the outbreak of WW1.

Success Criteria: students will have added a new dimension to their understanding of Nationalism as a powerful historical force for political change.

Activate Phase: The assassination
Acquisition of knowledge phase: viewing the documentary

Demonstration of knowledge phase: construct visual representation of Austro-Hungarian Empire and its harsh imperialism meets nationalism as a desire for political independence as a separate nation for Serbs.

Practice or application of knowledge phase:
draw a representation each of: militarism, nationalism, the alliance system, and imperialism

Lesson 4, Day 2, 19th February, 2014.
Learning Intention: students will understand how imperialism and nationalism acted to activate the European Alliance system. A system of "sides" that grew up out of fear of each other's military power.
Homework: Why was Belgium important to the beginning of WW1 for Britain and therefore New Zealand?
Lesson 5 The German Military Plan and Belgium. New Zealand enters the war with a YEEHAA!


homework check: please have your homework learning about the significance of Belgium to the entry of Britain into the First World War.

Learning Intention: students will understand the importance of Belgium to New Zealand entering WW1.

Why is this important for us to know?
This Belgium situation is an example of the alliance system being a cause for Britain and her Empire entering the war. Militarism was the force/power that forced the Alliance system to react with more threats of militarism - or military action.

On the other hand students could argue that it was the activation of the European Alliance System or -system of alliances, treaties and pacts - that made it necessary for militarism to be "mobilised". Military plans to stop invasion were all set as strategy by their army generals. And they could take a lot of time to get underway - eg Russia's army.

On the other hand students could argue that it was the arms race - battleships - between Germany and Britain (militarism) and Germany's desire to make her own colonies (imperialism) that forced the system of alliances to build up.

dog chasing its tail.jpg Moroccan Crisis x2


Alliances Chart1.png

Paste the following into your books:

System of Alliances Map


system of alliances map.jpg
Alliances Chart1.png

In 1905, Schlieffen was chief of the German General Staff. Europe had effectively divided into two camps by this year - Germany, Austria and Italy (the Triple Alliance) on one side and Britain, France and Russia (the Triple Entente) on the other.

Schlieffen believed that the most decisive area for any future war in Europe would be in the western sector. Here, Schlieffen identified France as Germany's most dangerous opponent. Russia was not as advanced as France in many areas and Schlieffen believed that Russia would take six weeks to mobilise her forces and that any possible fighting on the Russian-German border could be coped with by the Germans for a few weeks while the bulk of her forces concentrated on defeating France.

Schlieffen concluded that a massive and successful surprise attack against France would be enough to put off Britain becoming involved in a continental war. This would allow Germany time (the six weeks that Schlieffen had built into his plan) to transfer soldiers who had been fighting in the successful French campaign to Russia to take on the Russians.

Schlieffen also planned for the attack on France to go through Belgium and Luxemburg. Belgium had had her neutrality guaranteed by Britain in 1839 - so his strategy for success depended on Britain not supporting Belgium.

The Schlieffen Plan was revised as tension in Europe increased. However, the basic mechanics of it remained the same:

-a devastating attack on France via Belgium as soon as Russia had announced her intention to mobilise.

-a holding operation on the Russian/German border to be carried out if necessary and if required.

-Germany had 6 weeks to defeat France.

-Germany would then use her modernised rail system to move troops from the French operation to the Russian front.

-Russia would then be attacked and defeated.

-The Schlieffen Plan was daring but it had a number of glaring weaknesses:

-The actions of Russia determined when Germany would have to start her attack on France even if she was ready or not.

-It assumed that Russia would need six weeks to mobilise.

-It assumed that Germany would defeat France in less than six weeks.

In fact, the attack in August 1914 nearly succeeded and was only defeated by the first Battle of the Marne. Poor communication between the frontline commanders and the army's headquarters in Berlin did not help Moltke's control of the campaign. Also the withdrawal of German troops in response to a higher than expected threat on the Russian front, meant that the Germans did not have the military clout that Schlieffen had built into his original plan. It was a plan that nearly succeeded but its success could only be measured by being 100% successful. France had to be defeated - and this did not happen. Schlieffen's speedy attack and expected defeat of France never occurred - it's failure did usher in the era of trench warfare that is so much linked to World War One.



Acquisition of information; Copy down the following information and answer the questions:

Belgian neutrality

1. The Treaty of London (1839) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral state. What does independent mean?

2. What does neutral mean?

3. Until 1911 Belgian military strategic analysers believed that in another war, the Germans would attack France in the south over the common border and then trap the French armies against the Belgian frontier, as they had in 1870. What is meant by a common border?

4. British and French guarantees of Belgian independence were made before 1914 but the possibility of British landings of troops in Antwerp was also floated.

5. The Agadir Crisis (Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911) left the Belgian government believing that there was a definite risk of a European war and a German invasion of Belgium.

6. In September 1911, a government meeting concluded that Belgium must be prepared to resist a German invasion, but to avoid accusations of collusion by the British and French governments. Britain, France and Holland were also to continue to be treated as potential enemies. What does collusion mean?

7. In 1913 and 1914 German inquiries were made about Belgian intentions, if military forces crossed Belgium and in November 1913 the Belgian government was warned, by Germany, that it should side with Germany.

8. If invaded Belgium would need foreign help but would not treat foreign powers as allies or form objectives beyond the maintenance of Belgian independence. What does that sentence mean?

9. Neutrality forced the Belgian government into a strategy of military independence, based on a rearmament programme of 1909, expected to be complete in 1926. The Belgian plan was to have three corps of army, to nullify the numerical advantage of the German armies over the French. This was intended to deter a German invasion. What does nullify the numerical advantage mean?

10. The German invasion of Belgium on 4 August 1914, in violation of Article VII of the treaty, was the reason given by the British government for declaring war on Germany.


lesson 27th February - we unpack the perspective assessment and view video documentary about the reasons for the Gallipoli Campaign, plus some of the experience of WW1 soldiers at Gallipoli.

Learning Intention:
-students will understand the language in the perspectives assessment
-students will begin to understand background reasons for the Gallipoli Campaign.
-students will begin to understand the experiences of Australian and New Zealand soldiers and Gallipoli and in the trenches on the Western Front.

Monday 1st March, 2014

Learning Intention:
-students will build confidence in their knowledge of what is required of them in the perspectives assessment.
-students will be able to locate information about the strategy behind the Gallipoli Campaign, the leaders of the campaign, and the numbers of New Zealand soldiers involved in the Campaign.
-students will be able to locate information about the leaders of the Turkish campaign and information about the Turkish experience for one of their Perspectives.